pentium dual core

pentium dual core

pentium dual core edition

Pentium Dual Core is a Core 2 Duo (or a Core Duo, in the case of some mobile versions) CPU with a lower internal clock rate and less L2 memory cache. In this tutorial you will learn the main technical specifications of this processor and tables with all Pentium Dual Core released so far.

Intel recently changed these processors’ name, from “Pentium Dual Core” to just “Pentium”. So, “Pentium Dual Core E5200″ and “Pentium E5200″ are exactly the same processor.

Pentium Dual Core for desktops is a dual-core processor based on Core microarchitecture, the same one used by Core 2 Duo. Watch out to not make confusion between Pentium Dual Core and Pentium D. Even though both are dual-core CPUs, Pentium D is based on Intel’s previous microarchitecture, called Netburst, the same one used by Pentium 4. If you want to learn in details about the microarchitecture used by Pentium Dual Core read our Inside Intel Core Micro architecture tutorial. To compare it to Pentium D’s microarchitecture, read Inside Pentium 4 Architecture and Intel Dual Core Technology tutorials.

Pentium Dual Core uses a 1 MB L2 memory cache (2 MB for some 45 nm processors), which is shared between the two CPU cores (Intel calls this implementation as “Smart Cache”), and works externally at 800 MHz (200 MHz QDR, i.e., transferring four data per clock cycle) or 1,066 MHz (266 MHz QDR). Mobile models work externally at 533 MHz (133 MHz QDR), 667 MHz (166 MHz QDR) or 800 MHz (200 MHz QDR).

In contrast Core 2 Duo processors have at least 2 MB L2 memory cache – with several models having 4 MB or 6 MB – and, even thought there are models running externally at 800 MHz, the vast majority uses a 1,066 MHz external bus, with newer models running externally at 1,333 MHz or 1,600 MHz.

Early mobile versions of Pentium Dual Core are based on Pentium M’s microarchitecture, which Core microarchitecture was based on. Since these processors are dual-core Pentium M’s manufactured under 65 nm process, they are in fact Core Duo processors with less L2 memory cache – the original Core Duo has 2 MB L2 memory cache, while Pentium Dual Core has only 1 MB on these models. Newer models are based on Core 2 Duo, also with reduced L2 cache and external clock.

Here is a summary of the main Pentium Dual Core family features:

  • Core microarchitecture (desktop version and newer mobile models) or Pentium M (early mobile versions).
  • 32 KB instruction L1 memory cache and 32 KB data L1 memory cache for each core.
  • Dual-core technology
  • 65 nm or 45 nm manufacturing process
  • Socket 775 for desktop models
  • Socket micro-FCPGA for mobile models
  • 800 MHz (200 MHz transferring four data per clock cycle) or 1,066 MHz (266 MHz transferring four data per clock cycle) external bus on desktop models.
  • 667 MHz (166 MHz transferring four data per clock cycle), 533 MHz (133 MHz transferring four data per clock cycle) or 800 MHz (200 MHz transferring four data per clock cycle) on mobile models.
  • 1 MB (or 2 MB on some 45 nm models) unified L2 memory cache.
  • Intel EM64T Technology
  • SSE3 instruction set
  • No SSE4.1 instruction set support, not even on 45 nm models (45-nm Core 2 Duo CPUs support this feature).
  • Execute Disable Bit
  • Enhanced SpeedStep Technology
  • Enhanced Halt State (C1E)

Pentium Dual-Core processor family is the latest Pentium-branded family of budget dual-core desktop and mobile microprocessors. The family was introduced in the first quarter of 2007 and currently (Feb 2010) includes 15 desktop and 15 mobile microprocessors. With the exception of one recently released Nehalem Pentium processor, all Pentium Dual-Cores are based on Core micro-architecture, and include the following Core features:

  • 32 KB instruction and 32 KB data cache per core;
  • EM64T technology;
  • SSE3 and supplemental SSE3 instructions;
  • Wide Dynamic Execution – each core can execute up to 4 instructions per clock;
  • Advanced Digital Media Boost – ability to execute one 128-bit SSE instruction each clock cycle.
  • Execute disable bit – data memory segments can be marked as non-executable, which prevents external programs to execute malicious program code, that was loaded into system memory as data.

All desktop and mobile Pentiums have smaller size of level 2 cache, and run at lower core and bus frequencies than Core 2 Duo microprocessors released at the same time frame. Earlier desktop CPUs, as well as all mobile Pentium Dual-Core processors don’t support Virtualization technology.

“Dual-Core” part was eventually dropped from the family name, and the family is currently branded as “Pentium”. Mobile Pentium dual-core processors are currently branded as “Pentium Mobile”.


plus plus

plus plus

Google have launched a social networking site in June 2011 which looks promising with excellent features and they have named it Google Plus

Google Plus Review.

In the last few months I have actively been using Google plus so I can get a good feel of this latest addition to the e-world and I have been addicted ever since and have even managed to download the app on my handset which is a true mini social networking experiance.

I personally havent been a big fan of myspace or even facebook but rumor has it theres alot of people switching to G Plus and we shall take a look at what makes this new social networking site a big hit with already having gained over 10 million members in such short time.

Google plus makes social networking simpler, easier and smarter. Its unique features are Circles, Plus 1 button and Hang out. Now at the time of this article being written these are some of its main unique features and im sure google are working on improving it throughout its first year and onwards with more goodies.

Quick Google Plus Review On This …


Ok so we have lots of friends and we need to organise them , but how do we do this ? In G plus you have a unique feature to social networking where you can simply drag and add a friend to a certain circle such as family, friends , or even make your own group name such as I have webmasters, boxing, cool people, boring people, lol etc.

Google Plus 1 Button

Wouldnt it be nice you can vote and share something ? Im sure you heard of digg and stumble upon ? Well this works in similar but the beauty is google plus 1 is a quick vote with the application all over the web as we tend to search on google and now we can end up giving our quick votes. Makes it a breeze and benefits webmasters too.

Hang Out

Get upto 10 people in 1 room and get the video chat going. Now im sure this can also be used as a confrence for business meetings and not just having fun but the idea of having it in a social network makes it very good if you want to take social networking to another level.

To sum everything up on this review Google plus is going no where, where google wave and buzz failed i believe Google Plus will take over and be a winner when it comes to social networking online.

spring framework

spring framework

spring framework

The Spring Framework is an open source application framework that aims to make J2EE development easier. Unlike single-tier frameworks, such as Struts or Hibernate, spring framework aims to help structure whole applications in a consistent, productive manner, pulling together best-of-breed single-tier frameworks to create a coherent architecture.
Problems with the Traditional Approach to J2EE

Since the widespread implementation of J2EE applications in 1999/2000, J2EE has not been an unqualified success in practice. While it has brought a welcome standardization to core middle-tier concepts such as transaction management, many — perhaps most — J2EE applications are over-complex, take excessive effort to develop, and exhibit disappointing performance. While spring framework is applicable in a wide range of environments — not just server-side J2EE applications — the original motivation for spring framework was the J2EE environment, and spring framework offers many valuable services for use in J2EE applications.

Experience has highlighted specific causes of complexity and other problems in J2EE applications. (Of course, not all of these problems are unique to J2EE!) In particular:

J2EE applications tend to contain excessive amounts of “plumbing” code. Many code reviews repeatedly reveal a high proportion of code that doesn’t do anything: JNDI lookup code, Transfer Objects, try/catch blocks to acquire and release JDBC resources. . . . Writing and maintaining such plumbing code proves a major drain on resources that should be focused on the application’s business domain
Many J2EE applications use a distributed object model where this is inappropriate. This is one of the major causes of excessive code and code duplication. It’s also conceptually wrong in many cases; internally distributed applications are more complex than co-located applications, and often much less performant. Of course, if your business requirements dictate a distributed architecture, you need to implement a distributed architecture and accept the trade-off that incurs (and spring framework offers features to help in such scenarios). But you shouldn’t do so without a compelling reason.

The EJB component model is unduly complex. EJB was conceived as a way of reducing complexity when implementing business logic in J2EE applications; it has not succeeded in this aim in practice.

EJB is overused. EJB was essentially designed for internally distributed, transactional applications. While nearly all non-trivial applications are transactional, distribution should not be built into the basic component model.

Many “J2EE design patterns” are not, in fact, design patterns, but workarounds for technology limitations. Overuse of distribution, and use of complex APIs such as EJB, have generated many questionable design patterns; it’s important to examine these critically and look for simpler, more productive, approaches.

J2EE applications are hard to unit test. The J2EE APIs, and especially, the EJB component model, were defined before the agile movement took off. Thus their design does not take into account ease of unit testing. Through both APIs and implicit contracts, it is surprisingly difficult to test applications based on EJB and many other J2EE APIs outside an application server. Yet unit testing outside an application server is essential to achieve high test coverage and to reproduce many failure scenarios, such as loss of connectivity to a database. It is also vital to ensuring that tests can be run quickly during the development or maintenance process, minimizing unproductive time waiting for redeployment.

Certain J2EE technologies have simply failed. The main offender here is entity beans, which have proven little short of disastrous for productivity and in their constraints on object orientation. The traditional response to these problems has been to wait for tool support to catch up with the J2EE specifications, meaning that developers don’t need to wrestle with the complexity noted above. However, this has largely failed. Tools based on code generation approaches have not delivered the desired benefits, and have exhibited a number of problems of their own. In this approach, you might generate all those verbose JNDI lookups, Transfer Objects, and try/catch blocks.

In general, experience has shown that frameworks are better than tool-enabled code generation. A good framework is usually much more flexible at runtime than generated code; it should be possible to configure the behavior of one piece of code in the framework, rather than change many generated classes. Code generation also poses problems for round-tripping in many cases. A well-conceived framework can also offer a coherent abstraction, whereas code generation is typically just a shortcut that fails to conceal underlying complexities during the whole project lifecycle. (Often complexities will re-emerge damagingly during maintenance and troubleshooting.)

A framework-based approach recognizes the fact that there is a missing piece in the J2EE jigsaw: the application developer’s view. Much of what J2EE provides, such as JNDI, is simply too low level to be a daily part of programmer’s activities. In fact, the J2EE specifications and APIs can be judged as far more successful, if one takes the view that they do not offer the developer a programming model so much as provide a solid basis on which that programming model should sit. Good frameworks supply this missing piece and give application developers a simple, productive, abstraction, without sacrificing the core capability of the platform.

Using J2EE “out of the box” is not an attractive option. Many J2EE APIs and services are cumbersome to use. J2EE does a great job of standardizing low-level infrastructure, solving such problems as how can Java code access transaction management without dealing with the details of XA transactions. But J2EE does not provide an easily usable view for application code.

That is the role of an application framework, such as spring framework. Recognizing the importance of frameworks to successful J2EE projects, many developers and companies have attempted to write their own frameworks, with varying degrees of success. In a minority of cases, the frameworks achieved their desired goals and significantly cut costs and improved productivity. In most cases, however, the cost of developing and maintaining a framework itself became an issue, and framework design flaws emerged. As the core problems are generic, it’s much preferable to work with a single, widely used (and tested) framework, rather than implement one in house. No matter how large an organization, it will be impossible to achieve a degree of experience matching that available for a product that is widely used in many companies. If the framework is open source, there’s an added advantage in that it’s possible to contribute new features and enhancements that may be adopted. (Of course it’s possible to contribute suggestions to commercial products, but it’s typically harder to influence successful commercial products, and without the source code it’s difficult to make equally useful contributions.) Thus, increasingly, generic frameworks such as Struts and Hibernate have come to replace in-house frameworks in specific areas.

The Spring Framework grew out of this experience of using J2EE without frameworks, or with a mix of in-house frameworks. However, unlike Struts, Hibernate, and most other frameworks, spring framework offers services for use throughout an application, not merely in a single architectural tier. spring framework aims to take away much of the pain resulting from the issues in the list we’ve seen, by simplifying the programming model, rather than concealing complexity behind a complex layer of tools.

spring framework enables you to enjoy the key benefits of J2EE, while minimizing the complexity encountered by application code. The essence of Spring is in providing enterprise services to Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs). This is particularly valuable in a J2EE environment, but application code delivered as POJOs is naturally reusable in a variety of runtime environments.

spring framework in Context: Spring is a manifestation of a wider movement. Spring is the most successful product in what can broadly be termed agile J2EE.

Technologies: While spring framework has been responsible for real innovation, many of the ideas it has popularized were part of the zeitgeist and would have become important even had there been no spring framework project. Spring’s greatest contribution — besides a solid, high quality, implementation — has been its combination of emerging ideas into a coherent whole, along with an overall architectural vision to facilitate effective use.
Inversion of Control and Dependency Injection

The technology that spring framework is most identified with is Inversion of Control (or IoC), and specifically the Dependency Injection flavor of IoC. spring framework is often thought of as an Inversion of Control container, although in reality it is much more.

Inversion of Control is best understood through the term the “Hollywood Principle,” which basically means “Don’t call me, I’ll call you.” Consider a traditional class library: Application code is responsible for the overall flow of control, calling out to the class library as necessary. With the Hollywood Principle, framework code invokes application code, coordinating overall workflow, rather than application code invoking framework code.

IoC is a broad concept, and can encompass many things, including the EJB and Servlet model, and the way in which Spring uses callback interfaces to allow clean acquisition and release of resources such as JDBC Connections.

Spring’s flavor of IoC for configuration management is rather more specific. Consequently, Martin Fowler, Rod Johnson, Aslak Hellesoy, and Paul Hammant coined the name Dependency Injection in late 2003 to describe the approach to IoC promoted by Spring, PicoContainer, and HiveMind-the three most popular lightweight frameworks.

Dependency Injection is based on Java language constructs, rather than the use of framework-specific interfaces. Instead of application code using framework APIs to resolve dependencies such as configuration parameters and collaborating objects, application classes expose their dependencies through methods or constructors that the framework can call with the appropriate values at runtime, based on configuration.

Dependency Injection is a form of push configuration; the container “pushes” dependencies into application objects at runtime. This is the opposite of traditional pull configuration, in which the application object “pulls” dependencies from its environment. Thus, Dependency Injection objects never load custom properties or go to a database to load configuration — the framework is wholly responsible for actually reading configuration.

Push configuration has a number of compelling advantages over traditional pull configuration. For example, it means that:

Application classes are self-documenting, and dependencies are explicit. It’s merely necessary to look at the constructors and other methods on a class to see its configuration requirements. There’s no danger that the class will expect its own undocumented properties or other formats.
For the same reason, documentation of dependencies is always up-to-date.
There’s little or no lock-in to a particular framework, or proprietary code, for configuration management. It’s all done through the Java language itself.
As the framework is wholly responsible for reading configuration, it’s possible to switch where configuration comes from without breaking application code. For example, the same application classes could be configured from XML files, properties files, or a database without needing to be changed.
As the framework is wholly responsible for reading configuration, there is usually greater consistency in configuration management. Gone are the days when each developer will approach configuration management differently.
Code in application classes focuses on the relevant business responsibilities. There’s no need to waste time writing configuration management code, and configuration management code won’t obscure business logic. A key piece of application plumbing is kept out of the developer’s way.

Developers who try Dependency Injection rapidly become hooked. These advantages are even more apparent in practice than they sound in theory.

spring framework supports several types of Dependency Injection, making its support more comprehensive than that of any other product:

Setter Injection: The injection of dependencies via JavaBean setter methods. Often, but not necessarily, each setter has a corresponding getter method, in which case the property is set to be writable as well as readable.
Constructor Injection: The injection of dependencies via constructor arguments.
Method Injection: A more rarely used form of Dependency Injection in which the container is responsible for implementing methods at runtime. For example, an object might define a protected abstract method, and the container might implement it at runtime to return an object resulting from a container lookup. The aim of Method Injection is, again, to avoid dependencies on the container API.

Uniquely, Spring allows all three to be mixed when configuring one class, if appropriate.

Enough theory — take look at a simple example of an object being configured using Dependency Injection.

Assume that there is an interface — in this case, Service — which callers will code against. In this case, the implementation will be called ServiceImpl. However, of course the name is hidden from callers, who don’t know anything about how the Service implementation is constructed.

Assume that this implementation of Service has two dependencies: an int configuration property, setting a timeout; and a DAO that it uses to obtain persistent objects.
With Setter Injection you can configure ServiceImpl using JavaBean properties to satisfy these two dependencies, as follows:

public class ServiceImpl implements Service {
private int timeout;
private AccountDao accountDao;

public void setTimeout(int timeout) {
this.timeout = timeout;

public void setAccountDao(AccountDao accountDao) {
this.accountDao = accountDao;

With Constructor Injection, you supply both properties in the Constructor, as follows:

public class ServiceImpl implements Service {
private int timeout;
private AccountDao accountDao;

public ServiceImpl (int timeout, AccountDao accountDao) {
this.timeout = timeout;
this.accountDao = accountDao;

Either way, the dependencies are satisfied by the framework before any business methods on ServiceImpl are invoked. (For brevity, there are business methods shown in the code fragments. Business methods will use the instance variables populated through Dependency Injection.)

This may seem trivial. You may be wondering how such a simple concept can be so important. While it is conceptually simple, it can scale to handle complex configuration requirements, populating whole object graphs as required. It’s possible to build object graphs of arbitrary complexity using Dependency Injection. spring framework also supports configuration of maps, lists, arrays, and properties, including arbitrary nesting.

As an IoC container takes responsibility for object instantiation, it can also support important creational patterns such as singletons, prototypes, and object pools. For example, a sophisticated IoC container such as Spring can allow a choice between “singleton” or shared objects (one per IoC container instance) and non-singleton or “prototype” instances (of which there can be any number of independent instances).

Because the container is responsible for satisfying dependencies, it can also introduce a layer of indirection as required to allow custom interception or hot swapping. (In the case of spring framework, it can go a step farther and provide a true AOP capability. Thus, for example, the container can satisfy a dependency with an object that is instrumented by the container, or which hides a “target object” that can be changed at runtime without affecting references. Unlike some IoC containers and complex configuration management APIs such as JMX, Spring does not introduce such indirection unless it’s necessary. In accordance with its philosophy of allowing the simplest thing that can possibly work, unless you want such features, spring framework will give you normal instances of your POJOs, wired together through normal property references. However, it provides powerful indirection capabilities if you want to take that next step.

spring framework also supports Dependency Lookup: another form of Inversion of Control. This uses a more traditional approach, similar to that used in Avalon and EJB 1.x and 2.x, in which the container defines lifecycle callbacks, such as setSessionContext(), which application classes implement to look up dependencies. Dependency Lookup is essential in a minority of cases, but should be avoided where possible to minimize lock-in to the framework. Unlike EJB 2.x and Avalon, Spring lifecycle callbacks are optional; if you choose to implement them, the container will automatically invoke them, but in most cases you won’t want to, and don’t need to worry about them.

spring framework also provides many hooks that allow power users to customize how the container works. As with the optional lifecycle callbacks, you won’t often need to use this capability, but it’s essential in some advanced cases, and is the product of experience using IoC in many demanding scenarios. The key innovation in Dependency Injection is that it works with pure Java syntax: no dependence on container APIs is required.

Dependency Injection is an amazingly simple concept, yet, with a good container, it’s amazingly powerful. It can be used to manage arbitrarily fine-grained objects; it places few constraints on object design; and it can be combined with container services to provide a wide range of value adds.

You don’t need to do anything in particular to make an application class eligible for Dependency Injection — that’s part of its elegance. In order to make classes “good citizens,” you should avoid doing things that cut against the spirit of Dependency Injection, such as parsing custom properties files. But there are no hard and fast rules. Thus there is a huge potential to use legacy code in a container that supports Dependency Injection, and that’s a big win.

Aspect-Oriented Programming: Dependency Injection goes a long way towards delivering the ideal of a fully featured application framework enabling a POJO programming model. However, configuration management isn’t the only issue; you also need to provide declarative services to objects. It’s a great start to be able to configure POJOs-even with a rich network of collaborators-without constraining their design; it’s equally important to be able to apply services such as transaction management to POJOs without them needing to implement special APIs.

The ideal solution is Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP). (AOP is also a solution for much more; besides, this article refers to a particular use of AOP, rather than the end all and be all of AOP.

AOP provides a different way of thinking about code structure, compared to OOP or procedural programming. Whereas in OOP you model real-world objects or concepts, such as bank accounts, as objects, and organize those objects in hierarchies, AOP enables you to think about concerns or aspects in your system. Typical concerns are transaction management, logging, or failure monitoring. For example, transaction management applies to operations on bank accounts, but also to many other things besides. Transaction management applies to sets of methods without much relationship to the object hierarchy. This can be hard to capture in traditional OOP. Typically you end up with a choice of tradeoffs:

Writing boilerplate code to apply the services to every method that requires them: Like all cut-and-paste approaches, this is unmaintainable; if you need to modify how a service is delivered, you need to change multiple blocks of code, and OOP alone can’t help you modularize that code. Furthermore, each additional concern will result in its own boilerplate code, threatening to obscure the business purpose of each method. You can use the Decorator design pattern to keep the new code distinct, but there will still be a lot of code duplication. In a minority of cases the Observer design pattern is sufficient, but it doesn’t offer strong typing, and you must build in support for the pattern by making your objects observable.

Detype operations, through something like the Command pattern: This enables a custom interceptor chain to apply behavior such as declarative transaction management, but at the loss of strong typing and readability. Choosing a heavyweight dedicated framework such as EJB that can deliver the necessary services: This works for some concerns such as transaction management, but fails if you need a custom service, or don’t like the way in which the EJB specification approaches the particular concern. For example, you can’t use EJB services if you have a web application that should ideally run in a web container, or in case of a standalone application with a Swing GUI. Such frameworks also place constraints on your code-you are no longer in the realm of POJOs.

In short, with a traditional OO approach the choices are code duplication, loss of strong typing, or an intrusive special-purpose framework. AOP enables you to capture the cross-cutting code in modules such as interceptors that can be applied declaratively wherever the concern they express applies — without imposing tradeoffs on the objects benefiting from the services.

There are several popular AOP technologies and a variety of approaches to implementing AOP. Spring includes a proxy-based AOP framework. This does not require any special manipulation of class loaders and is portable between environments, including any application server. It runs on J2SE 1.3 and above, using J2SE dynamic proxies (capable of proxying any number of interfaces) or CGLIB byte code generation (which allows proxying classes, as well as interfaces). Spring AOP proxies maintain a chain of advice applying to each method, making it easy to apply services such as transaction management to POJOs. The additional behavior is applied by a chain of advice (usually interceptors) maintained by an AOP proxy, which wraps the POJO target object.

spring framework AOP allows the proxying of interfaces or classes. It provides an extensible pointcut model, enabling identification of which sets of method to advise. It also supports introduction: advice that makes a class implement additional interfaces. Introduction can be very useful in certain circumstances (especially infrastructural code within the framework itself).

Here, the interest lies in the value proposition that Spring AOP provides and why it’s key to the overall spring framework vision. Spring AOP is used in the framework itself for a variety of purposes, many of which are behind the scenes and which many users may not realize are the result of AOP:

Declarative transaction management: This is the most important out-of-the-box service supplied with spring framework. It’s analogous to the value proposition of EJB container-managed transactions (CMT) with the following big advantages:
* It can be applied to any POJO.
* It isn’t tied to JTA, but can work with a variety of underlying transaction APIs (including JTA). Thus it can work in a web container or standalone application using a single database, and doesn’t require a full J2EE application server.
* It supports additional semantics that minimize the need to depend on a proprietary transaction API to force rollback.

An AOP proxy can be used to provide a layer of indirection. (Remember the discussion of how indirection can provide a key benefit in implementing Dependency Injection?) For example, if an OrderProcessor depends on an InventoryManager, and the InventoryManager is set as a property of the OrderProcessor, it’s possible to introduce a proxy to ensure that the InventoryManager instance can be changed without invalidating the OrderProcessor reference. This mechanism is threadsafe, providing powerful “hot swap” capabilities. Full-blown AOP isn’t the only way to do this, but if a proxy is to be introduced at all, enabling the full power of Spring AOP makes sense.

“Dynamic object” support: As with hot swapping, the use of an AOP proxy can enable “dynamic” objects such as objects sourced from scripts in a language such as Groovy or Beanshell to support reload (changing the underlying instance) and (using introduction) implement additional interfaces allowing state to be queried and manipulated (last refresh, forcible refresh, and so on).

ice cream recipes

ice cream recipes

ice cream recipes

Chilled and tasty ice cream recipes are made at one time, uncooked eggs were used to make ice cream, but now we know in order to reduce the risk of salmonella poisoning, a custard-based recipe, an eggless recipe or a recipe using an egg substitute should be used.

“Homemade ice cream recipes is a special treat for many, but every year it causes several outbreaks of salmonella infection with up to several hundred victims at church picnics, family reunions or other large gatherings,” says John Sheehan, director of the Food and Drug Administration’s Division of Dairy and Egg Safety. The ice cream ingredient responsible for the outbreaks: raw (uncooked) or undercooked eggs. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports 45-50 outbreaks annually in the United States, resulting in illness in more than 1,300 people.

A person infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), the strain of salmonella found most frequently in raw eggs, usually has fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps beginning 12 to 72 hours after eating or drinking a contaminated food or beverage. The infection generally lasts four to seven days, and most people recover without any treatment. But for those at high risk — infants, older people, pregnant women and people with a weakened immune system — it can be life threatening.

While commercially manufactured ice cream recipes is typically made with pasteurized eggs or egg products, recipes for homemade ice cream often use raw eggs in the base mixture. Homemade ice cream can be made with eggs without the risk of salmonella infection by preparing it safely.

Here are some suggestions for safe alternatives to using raw eggs in your homemade ice cream: Use pasteurized shell eggs or pasteurized egg substitutes in recipes calling for raw eggs. Pasteurized shell eggs can be found in the dairy section while egg substitutes can be found in either the dairy case near the regular eggs or in the frozen food section. The FDA requires that pasteurized shell eggs be individually marked or specially packaged to prevent intermingling with unpasteurized eggs. The pasteurized egg product needs to be the whole egg and not just the whites or the texture of the ice cream will not be rich and creamy (see more about ice cream texture below).

  • Even when using pasteurized eggs, the FDA and the USDA advise consumers to start with a cooked base for optimal safety, especially if serving people at high risk for foodborne illness. Additionally, it’s important to only use pasteurized milk and cream products in making your homemade ice cream.
  • Use a recipe that contains a cooked custard base. The custard base must reach 160 degrees F to kill the salmonella bacteria. Resist the temptation to taste-test it during preparation because the custard isn’t fully cooked and could still contain salmonella. After cooking, chill the custard thoroughly before freezing.

ice cream recipes texture: Ice cream’s texture comes from the use of milk fat and sugar. The more fat in the milk, the smoother the frozen ice cream will be. If you use 1% or skim milk for a low fat option, the resulting ice cream will have a lot of ice crystals in it making it flat and lower in volume. Try 2% milk instead of whole milk. The end result will still be smooth, but lower in fat.

Sugar is another ingredient that helps create ice cream’s texture. By adding sugar, you raise the freezing temperature of your ice cream mixture. This allows you to be able to freeze it with ice, water and salt. So not only do you end up with a sweet treat, but it’s also easier to scoop.

crayons for toddlers

crayons for toddlers

crayons for toddlers

crayons for toddlers are active learners who learn through play. Drawing is play with line, color, placement, form, symbol, and image. The beginning of almost all works of art involves the use of line, one of the basic components of art. Lines are the foundations for shape and form. They can be straight, curvy, wavy, skinny or fat. Lines can be made with the specific purpose of conveying movement. Ideas for drawing are endless.

Teachers can make sure that crayons for toddlers and basic art materials are readily available as a choice to support learning. Activities can be extended by providing additional materials and knowledge. Teachers can foster and stimulate interest by introducing art materials at other play centers, such as dramatic play. Crayons and other drawing tools can be used to change the dramatic play area into an artist’s studio. Teachers can also foster children’s perceptive and reflective knowledge and skills by engaging them in informal discussions about their work, by displaying art reproductions, by arranging trips to an art museum, by inviting adult artists to the classroom to demonstrate their work, and by making books with quality drawings available to children.

When participating in this activity crayons for toddlers, children will:

  •     track and manipulate concrete objects;
  •     acquire an interest in mark-making and drawing;
  •     observe peers and adults exploring drawing materials;
  •     increase fluency and flexibility with a visual art tool and develop fine motor skills.
  •     extend peer and adult interaction;
  •     inquire about and discover new techniques using crayons;
  •     increase mark-making, symbol drawing, and emergent writing;
  •     use skills with drawing tools to represent learning in many ways;
  •     apply skills with drawing tools to new situations.

Materials needed: Large crayons for toddlers (without the paper wrapper)
A variety of paper, including newsprint, white drawing, or construction paper. Children should have the opportunity to draw with different sizes and textures of paper. Larger paper allows children maximum use of arm movements.

Procedure: crayons for toddlers develop symbols through hands-on experiences. Therefore, drawing and mark-making tools need to be available and accessible to children so they may become familiar with and explore the media. Invite children to explore materials with you. Model and demonstrate making marks on your paper. Encourage using soft and hard pressure with the crayon on the paper, using two crayons together, and using the point, side, and end of the crayon. As you make soft or hard marks on your paper, verbally describe what you are doing. Say something like, “When I rub real hard, the marks are strong and bright. When I move my arm around and around, the marks on the paper also go around and around.” Be available to facilitate and model interaction with materials, providing children with opportunities to explore, to compare their understanding of the world, and to apply the knowledge they have gained. Follow the child’s lead and verbally describe the child’s actions and resulting marks. “When you make your arm go up and down, your lines go up and down on the paper. Show me how you did that.” Encourage exploration with a variety of whole arm movements and wrist movements. Young children, especially those in the sensory motor stage, will not see the paper as being separate from the rest of their drawing environment. Drawing marks will often go off the paper. A washable drawing surface works best for easy cleaning after the drawing activity.

Many children enjoy crayons for toddlers using the point of the crayon to make dots. Do not be concerned about the noise level and the wear and tear on the crayons during this activity. This is a natural process of the learning cycle and making dots can be used to explore movement and sound. It may be beneficial to have the children change the beat or rhythm of their dot making. This can be done by saying, “Let’s make our dots softly.” Other ways to explore dot making areby saying, “Let’s see what happens when we make our dots fast (slow, hard, or soft).”

Adaptations: Many adaptations are available if the child’s grip is limited. You can tape together two or three crayons, use chubby stump crayons or sure-grip crayons. Other options include fitting the crayon with a type of adaptive grip device or using an adaptive grip device that straps to the child’s hand.

Crayon stubs and broken pieces can be placed in separate sections of a muffin pan and melted in a warm oven to create large circular crayon chips. Children with limited grips can grasp the crayon chip with the entire hand and the classroom has a new variety of crayon shapes to use.

Drawing activities take two hands, one to hold the paper while the other uses the drawing tool. Masking tape at the corners of the paper can help keep it in place while drawing. Try using sandpaper, felt sheets, or corrugated paper for the child with visual disabilities. These will provide texture and friction that will create sound as the child draws. Dark colors (black, brown, purple, or blue) make high contrast marks on white paper. Using these crayons for toddlers and colors can benefit children with visual disabilities.


Peacock feathers

Peacock feathers

Peacock feathers

Peacock feathers World Distribution: Wild peacocks feathers are found in Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. It is possible to find peacocks feathers wild in other parts of the world also, but they have been put there by people at some time.


They are not really fussy , so long as there are trees and bushes to hide in. In India, many Peacock feathers are found near farms and villages.


According to people who keep tame peacocks, they will eat just about anything! Wild peacocks eat plants, fruit, grains, insects, worms and frogs.


In the wild in India they are a favourite food of leopards and tigers.


By displaying their wonderful tails, males usually manage to attract 2-5 females, with whom they mate.
Females lay 6-8 eggs which they sit on for 28 days. Baby peachicks can run around and eat almost as soon as they hatch and can fly at just a week old.
Males do not have their full adult plumage until they are three years old.

Other interesting facts

  • Peacocks do not just fan out their tails, they vibrate them too, making a rattling sound and showing off the shimmering colours.
  • The eye markings on the Peacock feathers and tail are much admired by females – the more “eyes” a male has, the more mates he will attract.
  • Peacocks have been kept as tame birds in India for over 3000 years.
  • Peacocks are mentioned in ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian history.




Interesting stadium facts and informations, If someone could go back in time and look at War Memorial Stadium in 1948, you probably wouldn’t recognize it. The stadium has gone through many renovation projects and expansions that changed the look of the stadium over time. No one would have guessed that millions of people have walked through the gates of the stadium over 60 plus years to witness miracles and history. The stadium opened in 1948 with a natural grass surface and two large grand stand seating areas on the east and west sides. The north and south sides of the stadium were open and looked more like amphitheatre seating than a football stadium. War Memorial Stadium opened with an original seating capacity of just over 31,000.

Expansion has allowed the stadium’s capacity to grow to over 54,000. The once open areas on the north and south sides of the stadium have now been closed with additional seating. All concession stands and restrooms have been completely renovated. The press box, once voted the best press box in the country, will be torn down, rebuilt and reopened in 2010. The stadium is over 60 years old but continues to grow and stay a vital part of Central Arkansas. 1948 Dedication Ceremony War Memorial Stadium was originally built as a tribute to Arkansans who had given their lives in the service of their country during the two great World Wars. It has grown, over time, as a living tribute to all Arkansans who have served and paid the ultimate price for their country. Military personnel have been honored over the years through programs, tributes and monuments.

The Sturgis Plaza opened in 2008 on the Westside of the stadium as a place of remembrance and reflection. The plaza was the centerpiece of the celebration of War Memorial Stadium’s 60th anniversary and re-dedication. No event in the stadium’s history has drawn more Arkansans together than University of Arkansas football games. The stadium’s first event in 1948 was a Razorback football game, and War Memorial Stadium has since hosted nearly 200 Razorback football games. The stadium’s tailgating atmosphere is one of the best in college sports, expanding west to the War Memorial Golf Course. Conference and even National Championships have been decided on the field at War Memorial Stadium. Arkansas won or shared 11 Southwest Conference championships and several West Division titles in the Southeast Conference since 1948. No game was more memorable than the 2002 game between Arkansas and Louisiana State University. LSU needed a win to stay in the conference and national title hunt. Arkansas drove down field late in the fourth quarter and Matt Jones found Decori Birmingham for a touchdown and David Carlton’s extra point gave the Razorbacks a 21-20 victory over heavily favored LSU in what has been dubbed the “Miracle on Markham”. The rivalry between LSU and Arkansas has develop to the point where a trophy was created for the winning team to keep until the next game. The Boot was designed and titled after the shape that’s formed from Arkansas/Louisiana’s position on the map. The University of Arkansas isn’t the only Arkansas college to play games at War Memorial Stadium. Arkansas State University has its own history of games at the stadium along with the University of Central Arkansas and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Arkansas also has a strong core of teams from the NCAA Division II powerhouse Gulf South Conference that play games at War Memorial Stadium.

And in the pros, War Memorial Stadium welcomed the National Football League to Little Rock in 1949, when the Philadelphia Eagles played the Los Angeles Rams. Former Arkansas Razorback, Clyde “Smackover” Scott played in the game for the Eagles. War Memorial Stadium is also the home of the Arkansas Activities Association High School State Football Championship Games. The 2005 6A state championship game set the record for highest attendance for any high school title game. Little Rock Catholic High School plays all its home games at War Memorial Stadium. Neighboring schools, Benton and Bryant, play its game every year at War Memorial Stadium.

The game is known around the state as “The Salt Bowl” and is considered the state’s biggest and most competitive rivalry. The game routinely draws 20,000 fans for this Saline County Showdown. Sports aren’t the only events to make history at War Memorial Stadium. Concerts such as the Rolling Stones, Billy Joel & Elton John, the Eagles, George Strait and N’Sync have graced the stage at the stadium, drawing nearly 40,000 fans for each show.

The Reverend Billy Graham hosted an event at War Memorial Stadium that drew 270,000 people over the course of a week. Bob Hope’s event, “Hope across America”, drew 49,000 fans in 1991. From show stopping entertainment to miracles on the gridiron, War Memorial Stadium has been home to history. The Stadium is Arkansas’ most beloved venue for over 60 years and will continue to bring the best in sports and entertainment while serving a memorial to the great state of Arkansas.

bowling in nyc

bowling in nyc

bowling in nyc

Bowling in nyc Newyork is an affordable night out for the whole family, and a fun hangout activity for kids of all ages. Bowling rules of play for this iconic American sport. Many variations of bowling have come from Europe including Italian bocce, French pentanque, and even Britain’s lawn bowling, but the question of who introduced bowling to the United States is much more uncertain.

Manhattan: Bowlmor bowling in nyc: 110 University Pl between 12th and 13th Sts (212-255-8188, Mon-Thu $11.95; Fri-Sun $12.95; shoe rental $6.
This granddaddy alley draws a cool after-work crowd (think hot Wall Streeters) to its 42 lanes. The bistro sliders are huge, you can request drink service in your alley, and the ball return is the fastest we’ve ever seen.
Deals: Night Strike—glow-in-the-dark bowling on Mondays from 10pm to 2am—includes unlimited bowling, shoes and shot specials for $24 per person.

Harlem Lanes bowling in nyc: 2116 Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Blvd (Seventh Ave) at 126th St (212-678-2695, Mon–Thu $5.50; Fri before 6pm $6.50; Fri after 6pm, Sat–Sun $7.50; shoe rental $4.50. The 24 lanes, at-lane food service and VIP lounge are great, but the best things about this joint are its theme nights. Plus, the jerk wings are killer.
Deals: The Family Four Pack, available Sunday from 11am-11pm, includes one hour of bowling plus shoe rental for $40; additional hours are $15. On Mondays and Thursdays, take advantage of Dollar Mania—$1 games, shoes, beers and sodas—from 7pm-11pm.

Leisure Time bowling in nyc: Port Authority, 625 Eighth Ave between 40th and 41st Sts, second floor (212-268-6909, $6.50–$9.50, or book lanes by the hour ($50–$75); shoe rental $5. This 26-lane alley boasts a full-service bar and will soon debut an American bistro and arcade this summer, and a nightclub in 2011. The vibe is really fun too—bowling shoes turn into dance shoes at the drop of a needle.
Deals: Every day after 9pm, the Night Owl Special buys two hours of bowling, shoes and a beer tower—11 pints—for $29 a person (minimum four people). You can also save 20 percent by booking lanes online.

300 New York bowling in nyc: Chelsea Piers, Pier 60 at 23rd St and West Side Hwy (212-835-2695, Mon–Fri before 5pm $8, Sat–Sun before 5pm $9, Sun–Thu after 5pm $10, Fri–Sat after 5pm $11; shoe rental $6. Everything here is big—the TVs, the lounge, the 32 lanes—so you’re never right on top of someone. Also, the arcade has duckpin bowling, Dance Dance Revolution and a photo booth for cheeky couples.
Deals: Tuesdays 9pm–midnight are all-you-can-bowl for $28 per person.

Brooklyn bowling in nyc: Brooklyn Bowl: 61 Wythe Ave between North 11th and 12th Sts, Williamsburg, Brooklyn (718-963-3369, Hour of bowling $40-$50; shoe rental $4.50. The performance venue-slash-16-lane alley is set in the abyss of a renovated warehouse, which leaves more than enough space for an on-site Blue Ribbon. Gorge on comfort food favorites (like a sloppy joe or fried chicken platter) among fellow mid-20s brethren–the scene is decidedly a postgrad favorite.
Deals: Blanket pricing means there aren’t any…you’re paying per lane, per half hour–no matter what.

Gil Hodges Lanes bowling in nyc: 6161 Strickland Ave at Mill Rd, Mill Basin, Brooklyn (718-763-3333, Mon-Fri before 5pm $4.50; Mon-Fri after 5pm $6; Fri, Sat, Sun after 9pm $8; Sat, Sun before 9pm $6; shoe rental $4.25. It’s supremely spacious; weekend nights are bumping; there are three free parking lots surrounding the building; and its cheese fries are the best, like, ever.
Deals: Take advantage of the Nifty Fifty special on Tuesdays and Thursdays (noon–4pm): It’s a $6 cover charge and 50 cents per game.

The Gutter bowling in nyc: 200 North 14th St between Berry St and Wythe Ave, Williamsburg, Brooklyn (718-387-3585, $6 before 8pm, $7 after 8pm; shoe rental $3. You gotta be at least 21 to bowl at this highly stylized hipster haunt, which features old-school score monitors, stained-glass lamps and a tap loaded with American craft beers, including Chelsea Checker Cabs.
Deals: From 1am to close, Mondays–Thursdays, score two games for the price of one.

Maple Lanes bowling in nyc: 1570 60th St at the corner of 16th Ave (718-331-9000, Mon-Fri before 5pm $4.50; Mon-Thu after 5pm $6; Sat, Sun before 5pm, Fri-;Sun after 5pm $6.50; shoe rental $4.25. Another nostalgia-fest throwback with a giant sports bar dividing the 48 lanes, a snack bar that fits large groups, and a well-labeled ball selection.
Deals: Bowl for three hours on Sunday mornings for $25. (Arrive early—the lanes sell out by 8:15am.) Or pay a $6 cover charge and $1 per game on Sunday nights. On Mondays at 9:30pm, it’s $15 per hour, per lane.

Melody Lanes bowling in nyc: 461 37th St between 4th and 5th Aves, Sunset Park, Brooklyn (718-832-2695, Mon–Fri before 5pm $6; Sat, Sun before 5pm, Sun–Thu after 5pm $7.25; Fri, Sat after 5pm $7.50; shoe rental $4. This is the alley you grew up in—small and tight-knit, with a guy in a Totti shirt to your left and a little girl’s birthday party to your right. No snootiness, well cooled with overhead fans and offers classic (read: greasy) fare at its snack bar.
Deals: Midnight Glow offers unlimited bowling on Friday and Saturday nights (midnight–3am) for $22 per person, plus shoes.

Shell Lanes bowling in nyc: 1 Bouck Ct at Shell Rd, Gravesend, Brooklyn (718-336-6700, Mon–Fri before 5pm $3.25; Mon–Thu after 5pm $5; Fri after 5pm $5.25; Sat after 6pm $5.50; Sat before 6pm, Sun before 5pm $3; shoe rental $3.50. Despite the sketchy nabe, this homey 32-lane alley is in fairly good condition, plus the bar has about 30 bottled beers. The lanes are back-to-back and thisclose, making for one squishy game.
Deals bowling in nyc : There are two-hour specials for $5 per person on Mondays (4:15-6:15pm, 10pm-midnight), Thursdays (9:45-11:45pm) and Sundays (9:30-11:30pm), and an $18-per-lane deal on Sundays from 9am to noon.

Queens bowling in nyc: Whitestone Bowling 3005 Whitestone Expwy at Linden Pl, Flushing, Queens (718-353-6300, $4.50-$7; shoe rental $4.50.
This alley is open 24/7. That’s a turkey right there, but we also dig the fab chicken wings, crispy French fries and’s bizarre animated hostess.
Deals: Pay $19 for all-you-can-bowl on Saturdays and Sundays (8am–1pm), or $17 Mondays and Tuesdays (10pm–3am).

Bronx: bowling in nyc: Ball Park Lanes: 810 River Ave at 158th St, the Bronx (718-665-5800). Mon–Sun 9am–midnight (league nights Tue, Thu after 6pm). $4; shoe rental $2. Before, during and after Yankees games, this bare-bones 50-lane alley is jammed with beer-chugging pinstripe groupies. And hey, single ladies, BPL’s owner says he’s seen countless Yankees players stop in for a game. (One can dream, right?)
Deals: None. But with prices like these, who needs ’em?

Staten Island bowling in nyc: Rab’s Country Lanes: 1600 Hylan Blvd between Delaware and Raritan Aves, Staten Island (718-979-1600, Mon-Fri $5, Sat-Sun $5.50, shoe rental $3. A bumper system allows adults and kids (and double-digit bowlers) to play on the same lane. We also like the in-house pizzeria (owned by Gennaro’s), the on-site pro shop, the High Roller Lounge’s pool tables and darts, and the 20-ounce Budweiser served in bowling-pin bottles. Plus, the bathrooms are spotless.
Deals: They change regularly. Go to for the latest discounts.

Showplace Entertainment Center: bowling in nyc: 141 E Service Rd, Staten Island (718-477-2695, $6; shoe rental $4. You name it, they have it: dartboards, pool tables, a pro shop, a sweet game room with five Skee-Ball machines, a sports bar with bucket specials and a pizzeria/grill. Moreover, the pulsating Xtreme Glow-in-the-Dark Bowling is wildly bright.
Deals: From 9:30pm to 12:30am on Mondays, it’s Bowl-Till-You-Drop: all you can bowl for $10 per person (minimum four people per lane).

The history of bowling in nyc can be traced to ancient times. How did it evolve into the game we love today? Here’s a short history.

Even though bowling has been the object of satire in such movies as Kingpin and the Big Lebowski, it is certainly a genuine sport. And, believe it or not, it may be one of the oldest sports in the history of the world. Over 100 million people in more than 90 countries practice the game, making it one of the most popular and universally loved forms of recreation on the planet. It has been the game of kings (literally), and the startling facts behind the origins of bowling may surprise even the most dedicated kingpin.

In the 1930’s, British Anthropologist Sir Flinders Petrie became the first to discover evidence of a bowling-like game. He found ancient objects in a child’s grave in Egypt that were allegedly used for a primitive form of the game. The artifacts have been dated back to 3200 BC, effectively making bowling over 5,000 years old! Although some critics put the birth of bowling much later (German historian William Pehle has said that the game originated in his country in 300 AD), it has certainly endured centuries to settle into the modern lanes that we all know and love today.

The English, Dutch, and German settlers all brought their own versions of the game to the New World. The earliest mention of American bowling comes in the form of a quote from Rip Van Winkle when old Rip wakes up to the sounds of “ninepins”. The origin of the tenpin game is still unknown, but by the late 1800’s it was prevalent in New York, Ohio, and Illinois. The first standardization of the rules of the game was established on September 9, 1895 at Beethoven Hall in New York City. It was then that the American Bowling Congress was formed and major national competitions began. The Women’s International Congress came much later in the year 1917 under the encouragement of proprietor Dennis Sweeny. The women leaders participating in a tournament later formed the Woman’s National Bowling Association.

The first Mineralite ball was introduced in 1914 by the Brunswich Corporation, and the first commercial installation of a pin setting machine came in 1952, making “pin boys” almost entirely unnecessary. But nothing did more for the popularity of bowling than the first broadcast of “Championship Bowling” by NBC in the 1950’s. Thanks to this show and many others including “Make that Spare”, “Bowling for Dollars”, and “Celebrity Bowling”, bowling was thrust into the American public’s living rooms and hearts alike. The Pro Bowlers tour became hugely popular on ABC Sports Broadcasting after first being televised in 1961. These events all added to the popularity of Bowling but make no mistake. Bowling is loved in its own right because it is a sport of the people. It has come from its early forms to evolve into a truly enjoyable American past time.archery practice, but it was most certainly in vogue (and legal) during the reign of King Henry VIII.

php photo gallery

php photo gallery

php photo gallery

php photo gallery is very easy way to add photos to your website and maintain the gallery and also features such as adding tags, adding albums within albums and lots more. php there are many php photo gallery softwares which are open source products, it won’t cost you anything to use it but it’s nice to make a contribution to the developers. One such software is Gallery. php photo gallery is essentially a PHP module that you can use to provide photo album functionality to your web site.

  • Gallery is a freeware software package

Features “php photo gallery” :

  1. Freeware photo album module to install on your web site
  2. Could be used to create your own photo sharing web site
  3. Easy to install on your own web server
  4. Fully configurable through a web based installation wizard
  5. Doesn’t require any special permissions so fine for use on rented web servers
  6. Create albums to view as web pages or slideshows
  7. Suitable for embedding in a variety of different content management systems
  8. Works with different image manipulation packages for maximum compatibility
  9. Fully customizable using CSS
  10. Java uploader available as well as methods for uploading from Windows XP and iPhoto
  11. Users can leave comments on albums and photos
  12. Support for many different languages
  13. Freely downloadable package

Gallery is a software package that can be installed on a web server to provide photo sharing functionality. It is not a photo sharing site in itself, but if you knew what you were doing, you could create your own site using it. Even with a limited knowledge of building web sites you can use it yourself to add photo album functionality to your web site. If you are looking for an easy to use, out of the box, photo sharing web site Gallery isn’t for you, but if you are a developer looking for a useful building block, read on.

It supports many of the features you would expect from a photo sharing web site such as album creation, slideshows and comments. With a bit of effort you could build your own entire photo sharing web site taking advantage of the functionality Gallery provides. There is no support for user handling so you would need to implement this yourself, but everything photo-wise is taken care of.

Gallery is very easy to install, even without too much knowledge of web servers or programming. The installation procedure is taken care of using a web based wizard which allows you to configure a number of different settings. Handily you don’t need any special permissions on the web server you want to install Gallery on, which means it is ideal for use on rented servers as well as your own. Gallery also provides a remote protocol so that other applications can interact with it to upload or retrieve photos. This makes it possible to develop your own uploader tools if you want, but a Java based uploader is already provided.

Gallery has an active forum for development support, but as it is a freeware application, you won’t find much in the way of official support. However, the documentation is comprehensive and the developers often answer queries on the message board so you shouldn’t get too stuck. It is also constantly being updated so if there are new features you would like added there is a forum for posting your ideas.

Gallery does the job pretty well as a PHP photo gallery module for providing photo album capabilities to your web site, but it is not a ready-to-go photo sharing web site. As such it will probably only be of interest to web developers or even just enthusiasts who don’t mind putting in a bit of effort. Gallery is also freeware so you can use it all you want and it is well worth a look if you are planning on developing a web site.

kitchen fixtures

kitchen fixtures

kitchen fixtures

In a modern kitchen fixtures design, there are many things to consider.  Consider this example; kitchens featuring bright colors have been trendy for years. The kitchens incorporated bright cabinetry and featured colors such as honey and white. In addition, they utilized pastel colored floors. Today, popular kitchen designs are far different from what they once were. These days, kitchens modeled with dark colors are an increasing trend.  While dark colors can make dim and cavernous spaces, it is, in fact, quite the opposite. Darker colors are actually soothing, calm and perhaps inviting.

When constructing a new-age kitchen, incorporate the home’s natural architecture; utilize what is already present in terms of style. Kitchen design does not need to be dramatic; the styling should be effortless, use simple shapes, and organic materials. The level of functionality is the most important component in kitchen design. The goal of kitchen design is to get the most utility possible in the allotted space; both large and small kitchens have potentials. Contemporary kitchen design methods are geared toward this goal, and following these methods will allow for maximum kitchen efficiency. Lighting is a necessary part of kitchen design and should be given sufficient consideration. Working in the kitchen often requires sharp utensils and other possibly harmful tools. Lighting is essential for keeping meal preparation safe for all. Ensure that there is overhead lighting; this will brighten the entire room. Additional types of lighting around the room will secure additional safety.

Furniture for the kitchen should help the room to appear spacious and de-cluttered. Modern furniture uses uncomplicated shapes, vibrant colors and clear lines. Storage units in trendy kitchens are clean, lustrous with solid colors such as honey and deep brown. Some popular designs include glass cabinet doors and open shelving. The best way to improve spacing in kitchens when choosing cabinet designs is to use simple shapes, including squares and rectangles.

People tend to forget about flooring when designing their kitchens; however, this component is crucial in modern kitchen design. When choosing floors consider the color and texture of the materials to be used, this will have a large impact on the overall feel of the finished kitchen. Let someone create sketches of possible designs or use a computer program to do this. This will help create an image of what the kitchen may look like before any decisions are made. Consider the fact that showroom designs are not always what they appear to be, they may look quite different in your own home.

Contemporary kitchen design focuses on convenience and enjoyment. With this in mind kitchen design can be an easy task. In addition think about what types of modern kitchen equipment can be utilized to improve the usability and feel of the room. If there is a pantry present in the home, it can add meaningful space to a kitchen. If there is not one present this may be something to consider during a kitchen remodel. This area is useful for storing food and can keep space open in the kitchen. The existence of the pantry is very useful because it can serve as a place to store additional food items and cooking utensils allowing the kitchen to remain clutter free.